The Disputed Kashmir States and Areas
The Kashmir conflict - a fight over land, water rights, cultures, and borders
The ongoing Kashmir conflict is a multi territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947. China has at times played a minor role. India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir, including the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1947 and 1965, as well as the Kargil War. The two countries have also been involved in several skirmishes over control of the Siachen Glacier.
India claims the whole state of Jammu and Kashmir, and, as of 2010, administers approximately 43% of that region. It controls Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen Glacier. India's claims are contested by Pakistan, which administers approximately 37% of Jammu and Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. China currently administers the Demchok district, the Shaksgam Valley, and the Aksai Chin region. China's claim over these territories has been disputed by India, since China took Aksai Chin during the Sino-Indian Border Conflict of 1962.
The recent conflict is in Kashmir Valley. The root of conflict between the Kashmiri insurgents and the Indian government is tied to a dispute over the local area autonomy. Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s, and by 1988, many of the democratic reforms introduced by the Indian Government had been pushed out. Non-violent channels for expressing discontent were thereafter limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India. In 1987, a disputed state election created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups. In July 1988 a group of demonstrations, area strikes, and violent attacks on the Indian Government began the Kashmir Insurgency.